Abraham Maslow’s Expanded Hierarchy of Needs

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•1.Biological and physiological needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

•2.Safety needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.

•3.Love and belongingness needs – friendship, intimacy, trust, and acceptance, receiving and giving affection and love. Affiliating, being part of a group (family, friends, work).

•4.Esteem needs – which Maslow classified into two categories: (i) esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and (ii) the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).

•5.Self-actualization needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

6.Cognitive needs – knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and predictability.

7.Aesthetic needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form,

8.Transcendence needs – A person is motivated by values which transcend beyond the personal self (e.g., mystical experiences and certain experiences with nature, the pursuit of science, religious faith.

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